Realistic Results

The goal of female-to-male (FTM/N) top surgery is to remove excess breast tissue and to create a flat appearing (or more masculine looking) chest. In our experience, the vast majority of patients are thrilled with their final results and benefit from a huge sense of relief.


FTM/N chest reconstruction surgery is usually the first (and sometimes the only) surgical step that transgender men and non-binary transmasculine individuals take on their transformative journey. If you’re considering surgery, it’s important to have realistic expectations. FTM/N top surgery can be a life changing experience, but your final results may have some trade-offs, such as loose skin or visible scarring.



Unfortunately, scarring is an inevitable consequence of most surgical procedures. Though every patient is different, most are happy to exchange their unwanted breasts for chest scars.


The size, length and color of your scars can be hard to predict and will depend on several factors such as your genetic makeup, our skin’s inherent ability to heal, and your post-surgical care. The extent of your FTM/N chest surgery and the incision patterns used will also impact the size and location of scars.


  • Liposuction incision is Ideal for very small chests, or in combination with other techniques. Liposuction requires only a very small incision that can often be concealed near the armpits. Incisions are usually about 4mm in length and result in minimal scarring.


  • Keyhole/Peri-areolar incision is ideal for small-to-moderate chests. The incision pattern runs along the edge of the areola, sometimes just around the lower half (keyhole) or around the entire circumference (circum-areolar). Scarring will be visible, but is usually minimal.


  • Double incision is Ideal for very large chests or for those with a significant degree of sagging, the incisions runs in a U-shaped pattern just below the pectoral muscles. This pattern results in two visible scars across the lower chest areas.


  • Buttonhole and Inverted T incision surgery is best for when the priority is not flatness, but is an attempt to maintain erotic sensation to the nipple / areola region


Your scars will be most visible for about 6 weeks post-surgery, appearing raised and darkened in color. They will gradually fade and flatten over the course of 12-18 months. Our team will provide you detailed instructions on how to reduce their appearance.




FTM/N chest surgery is a major surgical procedure. It will take time for your chest to heal and settle into its new position. It may take up to a year before the final results of your procedure are evident. In some instances, it may be necessary to undergo additional procedures to correct asymmetry or a complication resulting from surgery. This may result in a longer recovery time.